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Category-A DSN Missions
The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) also supports near Earth missions, called Category-A missions, contrary to deep space missions. The paper
describes a roadmap for projected augmentations and new capabilities needed to meet the challenges imposed by these missions during the next two decades.
Cross Support Transfer Services (CSTS) are standardized services to allow interoperability between different space agencies for mission cross support. A service user from one agency can use services that are provided from the ground station belonging to another agency. The CCSDS Space Link Extension (SLE) services for delivery of spacecraft telemetry and telecommand between ground stations and control centers are very successful examples for these kinds of services. The CCSDS CSTS Standardization Working Group is currently working on a CCSDS Cross Support Transfer Service Specification Framework.
gives a brief overview of the work of the CCSDS CSTS Standardization Working Group and introduces the concepts of the CSTS Specification Framework.
The German Space Operations Center (GSOC) is currently building up an operational proximity monitoring and mitigation system. Proximity events are detected based on the “Two-line Elements” (TLEs) and precise orbit information from locally operated missions. Despite evident deficiencies in the quality and timeliness of the available orbit information, TLEs are currently the only source of orbit information for the numerous space objects. The TLE uncertainty needs to be therefore carefully assessed for the collision risk estimation. Even after a realistic error analysis, the orbit information of a possible jeopardizing object has to be refined for a proper planning and implementation of collision avoidance maneuvers. For this purpose, the use of radar tracking is currently planned, for which an accuracy assessment is to be considered. In the paper
, following the presentation of the collision avoidance procedure at GSOC, the orbit accuracy and the orbit refinement by a radar tracking is discussed followed by its application to the collision avoidance system. The paper concludes with the presentation of GSOC’s collision risk monitoring system and how close approaches are handled.
Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS)
Space operations have evolved slowly but steadily over the last half century, driven primarily by computing and software developments implemented in both ground and space segments. The next decade could, however, see a paradigm shift in the scope and nature of space operations as a consequence of NewSpace activities, which have the potential to deliver major improvements in space access – in terms of cost, availability and reliability – and thereby increase the number and diversity of missions, especially those involving humans.
While similar claims in the past have proved to be merely false dawns (Cf. the original rationale for Shuttle) there is good reason to believe that on-going developments are far more likely to lead to such a paradigm shift. The paper
sets out the justifications for such optimism and discusses their implications with respect to both the scope and nature of space operations during the coming decade
. See also SpaceOps "Communicator" article on
Airports have begun incorporating Spaceport infrastructure and cooperative operations. We are witnessing the evolution of the Aerospaceport. For many years Spaceports were exclusively developed by the Federal Government. They then evolved to also include a State -
Federal based model.
discusses the technical, cost, schedule and political requirements of the launch vehicle programs which influenced the evolution of the Aerospaceport development models. It then compares and contrasts the differing requirements of Federal, State and private spaceports which influence the ultimate decision
of where to conduct a launch.
Commercial Crew Developmet (CCDev )
In the quest to increase accessibility to space under CCDev contracts, SpaceX has strived to optimize the use of automation and process/communications flow to allow the human operator a better focus on decision making and thus ensure repeatable, efficient and reliable operations.
While remaining cognizant of the unique and challenging environment of spaceflight and respecting over 50 years of experience of space operations, SpaceX is applying the best practices from our industry as well as other operationally-focused industries in a solution tailored for the 21st century. SpaceX has developed spacecraft launch and on-orbit control systems using graphically-driven displays and state-of-the-art architectures that result in a positive redistribution of workloads. In addition, the use of off-the-shelf tools and standard computer platforms have allowed mission operators to concentrate on the spacecraft rather than the ground system. Simulation and flight experience have already shown improvements in allowing the operator to look further out in the mission and manage operations as presented in
reviews how commercial operations have influenced the RADARSAT-2
operations concept from a mission management perspective, and describes the mission
Technology for establishing communications between a spacecraft and the appropriate ground segment (ground based facilities).
It comprises all means of communications and associated technical support systems used between a spacecraft (manned or unmanned) and the ground personnel (flight and payload operators). Space communications (Space-to-Ground, Ground-to-Space and Space-to-Space) always demand higher transmission capabilities (data rates and protocols) for up- and downlink data transfer. Interesting and promising validation results of interplanetary Ka-band link (high rate) communications usage were presented at SpaceOps 2006 AIAA paper
. The ESA Ground segment Management is looking into Ka-band expansion as well (Plenary Session, ''SpaceOps 2006''). For interplanetary (e.g. Lunar/Mars) missions, it is proposed to use IP rather than point-to-point protocols (Round Table).
Operations of satellites in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) have been based on exploiting the maximum time of visibility of satellites over their ground stations. In a 2010 paper (
), it is shown that a key parameter for communication between a satellite and a ground station is not the time of visibility but the amount of telemetry data which can be transmitted from the
satellite to the ground station in the downlink.
New MARS an MOON communication technologies were discussed in the 2016 Conference:
Enabling International Data Relay at Mars
The Lunar Space Communications Architecture (from The KARI-NASA Joint Study).
Constellation is the name of the NASA program to implement the “Vision for Space Exploration” (VSE) as installed by President George W. Bush consisting of the shuttle derived two stage launcher Ares I (
) to service together with the crew transport vehicle “Orion Orbiter” the ISS. The Ares V launch vehicle will transport “Orion” together with the moon lander “Altair” into earth orbit to be docked there and maneuvered into a moon trajectory. “Altair” will land on the moon while “Orion” is orbiting the moon waiting for “Altair’s” return to fly the crew safely back to earth. The same concept might be applied for exploring Mars.Ground operations aspects for the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles are described in
Telecom satellite fleet hassle free operations (
) discusses an end-to-end automation system. Another automation approach is provided in
: Flying Large Constellations Using Automation and Big Data.
The degree of on-board control. Theoretically, total crew autonomy would be a self-contained, independent flight system without any interaction with ground operators. A certain degree of crew autonomy is mandatory with independent and automated on-board planning systems AIAA paper
, because of the creasing delay-times for long distance human spaceflight.
Cost effective operations
EUMETSAT, the EUropean organisation for the exploitation of METeorological SATellites exploits since 1977 the METEOSAT series and, since 2004 the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites which deliver meteorological observations from geostationary orbit with stringent data timeliness and operational availability requirements. The Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) programme will take over MSG, starting in 2017 for the next 20 years, as an answer to the expanding needs for satellite based meteorological data due to the continuous development of Numerical Weather Prediction capabilities. The paper selected as one of the "best papers" in 2010 (
introducing the main aspects of the cost effective approach that has driven the system specification activity and hence led to operations characteristics of the MTG system. A presentation of the major technical and programmatic drivers for the anticipated MTG operations is proposed, including for instance, the high degree of ground and space operations automation, the increased satellite autonomy, satellites co-location, the optimisation of TM/TC antenna usage, the remote accessibility to the system monitoring capabilities from outside the control rooms, the introduction or re-use of multi-programme ground segment facilities. Evolutions since the MSG operations concept elaborated before the launch are also provided where appropriate to highlight the evolution from the current programme to the next one.
"Cubesat" was added a new "key word" for the SpaceOps 2016 Conference because of the growing actuality of mini-satellites, called "cubesats":
Cubesat Development for CANYVAL-X Mission
MarCO: Interplanetary Mission Development on a CubeSat Scale
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